These are the nine RD&D research programmes:1. Basic requirements, coordination and conceptual studies
2. Market and traffic conditions
3. Passenger requirements
4. The role of train personnel and design of the driver’s cab
5. Product calculations for high-speed vehicles – design for manufacture
6. Environmental performance – noise reduction, vibrations, energy & resourceconsumption, and article emissions
7. Driving, braking and control systems; condition monitoring of vital components;operating information
8. Carriage body, supporting structure and aerodynamics
9. Bogies, wheels, spring suspension, damping, and carriage body suspension
1. Basic Requirements, Coordination and Conceptual Studies
The aim of this area is to identify the basic requirements for future vehicles at a systems level and to establish a unifying function for integrating the results of the other areas of the programme into a single, composite concept for future vehicles. The following issues will be focused upon:
- Basic technical requirements (TSI, specific Nordic requirements)
- Basic functional requirements for the ‘future vehicle’
- Designing the ‘concept vehicle’ on the basis of the results obtained from interim
technical part projects.
2. Market and Traffic Conditions
This area includes the identification of future regional and interregional markets for transporting passengers by train, and how such markets affect potential flows, traffic plans, vehicle functionality and future vehicle requirements. An assessment should be made of the total volume of long-distance trains, with speeds of 250 km/h and more, ranges of 300 – 700 km, and with capacities to travel on conventional modernised rails with a small curve radius. Outlines should be given of three typical examples of requirement specifications, on the basis of which market segments can be identified. Researchers could be linked to universities and could be consultants within the fields of the social sciences or transport economy. Examples of users are: operators, vehicle owners, suppliers, and infrastructure managers.
3. Passenger requirements
A passenger’s overall perception of the journey and of the train’s comfort depends on the working of the train, security and punctuality, and whether or not additional services and facilities are offered onboard. How do we create accessibility, attractive interiors and a feeling of comfort, reliability and efficiency? Function cost analyses of different design solutions can be carried out in an attempt to answer these questions. Researchers may represent design colleges, could be vehicle design consultants, or may work for companies and institutions concerned with production and technical calculations for design solutions. Users may be vehicle suppliers, buyers of vehicles, and passengers.
4. The Role of Train Personnel and Design of the Driver’s Cab
By considering research and development work already underway, the aim of this area is to identify specific problems that may apply to ‘Gröna Tåget’. State-of-the-art ergonomics and information systems are also included here. Research performers could be design consultants who specialise in information and ergonomics, and researchers and consultants concerned with Man Machine Interaction (MMI) or simulation technology. Users are train traffic controllers; drivers; those responsible for education in the railway sector; safety authorities; and suppliers of information systems, driver’s equipment/compartments and information to and from the train personnel.
5. Product Calculations for High-Speed Vehicles – Design for Manufacture
The following assignments are included in the 5th area of the programme: Carrying out a function cost analysis for passenger vehicles in the rail sector and also a study of the relation of vehicle weight to production costs/prices. The work also includes calculation systems for rationalising the manufacturing process – selection of production technology/production systems – degree of mechanisation/automation. Calculation systems should be designed for cutting costs in vehicle construction by defining those areas that can be modified by using alternative construction solutions and new production technology/strategies. Researchers could be institutes working with production technology and with production rationalisation in the heavy engineering/vehicle industry, in cooperation with institutes for transport economy. Users are suppliers and buyers of railway vehicles, and operators.
6. Environmental Performance – Noise Reduction, Vibrations, Energy & Resource Consumption, and Particle Emissions
The Environmental Performance area aims to formulate potential risk factors by considering current limit values and by deciding on measures that need to be taken. Proposed measures should be evaluated to see if they are applicable to the vehicles. The work should also include proposals for increased energy and resource efficiency, more effective usage, and for the recycling of materials. Researchers could represent companies and institutions concerned with preventive environmental research, noise and vibrations, and with the development of environmentally safe products and design. Users are suppliers and constructors of vehicles and of vehicle components.
7. Driving, Braking and Control Systems; Condition Monitoring of Vital Components; Operating Information
This area deals with the design of modern electro-mechanical driving systems. The aim is to achieve systems with a low weight/power ratio, and which are adapted for Nordic or Northern European driving conditions (e.g. acceleration, electric energy regeneration, the interplay between contact line and pantograph or pantograph modules). This area should include attempts to reduce the weight of the driving system in order to diminish rail wear and improve acceleration and deceleration. In this area the following systems need to be designed: Braking systems, with regard to performance, energy regeneration, winter conditions, maintenance, etc. Monitoring systems, including vehicle sensors for increasing reliability and performance Real time information systems aimed at fleet management and preventive maintenance. Researchers could represent companies and institutions that work with efficient mobile electrical driving systems, production techniques, sensors, gauging and information. Users are suppliers of rail vehicles, operators, operation control desks, electricity suppliers, infrastructure managers, and maintenance companies.
8. Carriage body, Supporting Structure and Aerodynamics
Function/cost-based constructions of carriage and middle modules and driver and engine modules constitute a part of this programme area, which also includes the evaluation of different materials, e.g., high-strength steel, aluminium, composite, etc. Programmes for testing damage-based energy transmission to the carriage in various collision scenarios, should also be outlined. Aerodynamics is a parameter in several fields, such as: energy consumption, environmental impact, acoustics, safety, comfort, cooling, and snow problems. Air resistance represents 70 – 80 % of the total motion resistance on a level track, at a speed of 200 – 250 km/h. Emphasis must also be placed on ideas or solutions for reducing energy consumption, while considering higher speeds for limiting impact on the surrounding environment. Important areas for study are:
- frames around bogies and carriage gaps
- design of the front
- concepts for roof equipment, considering pressure at tunnel passages
- crosswind safety.
Researchers could be companies and institutions working with aerodynamics, acoustics, innovation, strength calculation and tests, and suppliers of materials for building carriers, test institutes and safety consultants. Users are vehicle suppliers, operators, infrastructure managers, safety authorities, and design and construction suppliers.
9. Bogies, Wheels, Spring Suspension, Damping and Carriage Body Suspension
This area includes the design of the bogie/car body tilting system, based on experience and safety criteria. Parameters for suspension and damping should be established with regard to comfort, safety and cornering qualities on “non-perfect” tracks. Sensitivity analyses should be done on how a reduction in weight of the superstructure and bogie frame would affect bogie parameters, wheel endurance, and rail wear. Researchers could be companies and institutions that have developed, or would like to develop, the technical competence needed to achieve comfort and other criteria for better driving. Users are suppliers of complete vehicles, operators, railway managers, vehicles buyers, and passengers with various preferences.